Circling the Lion's Den

History of state security


In February there were extended the rights of military counter-intelligence.

Acting president Vladimir Putin signed the decree "On departments (divisions) of FSB in armed forces" extending possibilities of Special divisions. Condition on divisions (departments) of Russian Federation Federal service of securities in RF Armed Forces, other forces, military formations and bodies (security bodies in forces) is approved by RF President Decree, dated Feb 7, 2000 No. 318 and partly published in newspaper "Krasnay zvezda", Feb. 25, 2000. Some clauses of the Condition have a closed character.

From the Condition:

"5. Security bodies in forces have the right: to set at confidential basis relations of cooperation with persons having consented to do so on behalf of security provision of Russian Federation Armed forces, other forces, military formations and bodies and besides for tasks resolving provided by federal legislation".

A field of responsibility of army Special divisions for drug business, organized crime, corruption, illegal turnover arms, ammunition, explosive and toxic agents, special technical means designated for private receive of information is being extended in this document.

On Apr, 18-20 within the framework of the seventh meeting, Council of leaderships of security bodies (SROB) and special services, SNG it was decided to create antiterrorist center of states by the Commonwealth. Major-general Boris Mylnikov, first chief deputy of terrorism control department, FSB RF was proposed as a candidate of the organization leader.


In April, 1999 by the decree of President there were carried out organizational and personnel changes in Department of economic security (look FSB structure). On the basis of two departments there were created several subdivisions including the department on counter-intelligence provision of industrys enterprises, transport and credit and finance sphere, on contraband and drug business control

In Aug 28, 1999 by RF President Decree on the basis of Department on terrorism control and Department of constitutional security was formed the Department on constitutional structure defense and terrorism control.

In November, 1999 it was created the Department on programs promotion (UPS) (comprises COS, Information and analytic and organization coordinate units). Look section "New departments in FSB".


On Jul 6, 1998 by RF president Decree it was approved a new Condition about FSB and structure of the Services central machinery. In accordance with this decree (edition Aug 26, 1998) in FSB there were set the posts of two first deputies by FSB director. Stats-secretary - deputy director, six posts of deputies director - FSB departments leaders, a post of deputy director - chief of the Department over Moscow and Moscow region. Besides a college of 17 persons was formed.

Personnel strength of central FSB machinery servicemen from January 1, 1999 is voted in the amount of 4000 persons.

Besides in accordance with the decree it was formed the department of economic security.

On Oct 5, 1998 a structure of FSB central machinery was partly changed. Were set 2 posts of first deputies and 6 posts of deputies director of service - departments leaders, a post of deputy director - UFSB chief over Moscow and Moscow region, deputy director of UFSB over Saint-Petersburg and Leningrad region and a college of 17 persons. College was formed in the following compound - director (chairman), his deputies and besides the leading FSB officers. On Nov 5, 1998 FSB director V. Putin made a report at State Duma where, in particular, he described the main directions of FSB activity. They are:

  • collection of proactive information about danger to the countrys economy with further report to RF President and Government;
  • assistance to the Government in realization of governmental internal and interstate programs;
  • counteraction at the territory of Russia to foreign special services which systematically undertake attempts to seize the state secrets in sphere of economy, especially in VPK (military and industrial complex);
  • organized crime control by channels of international cooperation, corruption control. (Pravda Rossii. Duma. Nov 25, 1998. P. 2,4.)

On Dec 7, 1998 in accordance with RF President Decree "Points of military and technical RF cooperation with foreign states" GTK was allotted the duties on control coordination and provision in this sphere concerning security provision at the fulfillment of military and technical cooperation.

By RF President Decree, Jan 4, 1999 on the basis of organization-inspection division by the Department on organization-personnel work (6th Department) it was created the Inspection department of FSB.


In accordance with RF President Decree May 22, 1997 No. 515 "On structure of Federal service of security" was set a new FSB structure.

FSB STRUCTURE (May 22, 1997)

Department of counter-intelligence

Department on terrorism control

Department of economic security

Department of analysis, forecast and strategic planning

Department on organization-personnel work

Department of activity provision

Department of development and suppression of crime organizations activity

Investigation department

Operative-detection department

Department of operative-technical measures

Department of self security

Department of business affairs

Department of computer security

Investigation isolation ward

Scientific-research center


On Apr 12, 1995 Federal Law "On bodies of Federal service of security in Russian Federation" (40-fz, Apr 3, 1995) came into power by which RF Federal service of counter-intelligence is renamed into FSB.

FSB functions in accordance with the law:

  • counter-intelligence activity;
  • crime control (spy, terrorism, organized crime, corruption, illegal armament and drug turnover, contraband, etc.) and besides to bring out, repress and disclose activity by illegal armed formations, crime groups, separate persons and public units which aim to change Russian Federations constitutional structure. Other tasks in sphere of crime control can be allotted at FSB bodies by federal laws and other normative legal acts by federal bodies of state power;
  • intelligence activity.

Director is a head of FSB "with rights of a federal minister". Director of FSB is in congruence with the rank of army general.

On Jun 23, 1995 the President Decree No. 633 renamed FSK into FSB from April 12 (from the date of the law coming into force). FSK officers were announced FSB officers "without their re-attestation and re-appointment". There were left 7 posts of deputy director (including one first deputy and deputy director - chief of FSB department over Moscow and Moscow region) and a college of 11 persons. Strength of the FSB machinery department was kept previously set for FSK as 1520 persons, strength of servicemen and civil personnel a FSB bodies - 77640 persons (without personnel of scientific-research, military medical institutions, personnel on maintenance, guard and buildings service).

Application to the decree - Condition on FSB and FSB structure - not published.

In July, 1995 together with new FSB director appointment M. Barsukov the personnel strength of deputies was increased from 7 to 8 (including two first deputies) and additional post of first deputy was appointed colonel-general V.M. Zorin. College strength was increased up to 12 persons accordingly.

By Presidents Decree, May 22, 1997 No. 515 it was set FSB structure which entered 13 units:

Department of counter-intelligence, Department on terrorism control, Department of analysis, forecast and strategic planning, Department on organization-personnel work, Department of activity provision, Department of development and suppression of crime organizations activity, Investigation department, operative-detection department, Department of operative-technical measures, Department of self security, Department of business affairs, Investigation isolation ward, Scientific-research center. One post of first deputy director was set, 5 posts of deputies director - departments leaders, 1 post of deputy director - FSB department chief over Moscow and Moscow region and a college of 11 persons.

By RF President Decree, Jul 24, 1995 it was set the following strength of the officers:

8 deputies director, 2 of them are first deputies and 1 of them - deputy director - UFSB RF chief over Moscow and Moscow region.

12 persons of the College. Machinery - 1,52 thousands persons. On Sep 14, 1995 by RF President decree it was set that one of two first deputies director would be a chief of antiterrorist center.


On Jan 5, 1994 by the Decree of RF President it was approved (but not published) Condition on Federal service of counter-intelligence. Director was allowed to have five deputies including first deputy Director and deputy Director - chief of FSK Department over Moscow and Moscow region. College of FSK was formed in amount of 11 persons. It was set the strength of FSK machinery officers in amount of 1,5 thousands persons, strength of servicemen and civil personnel of RF counter-intelligence bodies as 75 thousands counter agents (without personnel of scientific-research, military medical subunits and institutions, personnel on maintenance, guard and service of buildings and rooms).

Former machinery of MB was reduced almost at 46 per cents. Only in Moscow the number of officers was reduced from 3,5 thousands to 1,5 thousands persons.

After 16 meetings of attestation college present FSK leader Sergey Stepashin announced that service was created and began its work. 227 persons were appointed at posts equal to general ranks.

FSK leader - Sergey Stepashin


Anatoly Safronov. Colonel-general.

Valery Timofeyev

Alexander Strelkov

Evgeny Savostianov (leaded Moscow state security bodies more than a year)

Andrey Bykov

Department of economic counter-intelligence - Vladimir Tsekhanov. Its known that before May, 1995 he has was a lieutenant-colonel in KGB of Udmurtia. Took an active part in case of law defender Andrey Mironov (convicted by 70 article in April, 1986 at 4 years and three transportations).

Department of military counter-intelligence - Alexey Molyakov. Since 1992 was the chief of Military counter-intelligence department of MB.

Department of counter-intelligence operations - Viktor Zorin..

Department of counter-intelligence provision of strategic objects - Valentin Sobolev

Department on personnel - Igor Meghakov

Organization-inspection department - Vasily Kravtsov (since 1992 was the assistant to the Minister of RD security, by Barannikov).

(According to the data by Moscow news, 30.03.94)


FSK is created by Presidents Decree No. 2233, Dec 21, 1993 on the basis of RF Ministry of security which had been abolished by the same decree. Its set that FSK RF leads the Director in rank of a Minister subordinated directly to RF president. Its set that Ministry of securitys officers and subordinated to it bodies and organizations are considered as temporary serving at FSK before attestation passing essential for entering FSK RF staff.


Ministry of RF defense formed on Jan 24, 1992 on the basis of the abolished Agency of federal security of RSFSR and Inter-Republic service of security. The same decree set the Temporary condition on Ministry of security. On Dec 23, 1992 the President introduced a post of first deputy Minister - a chief of Ministry Headquarters and in Oct 15, 1992 he changed it into the post of first deputy minister.

Ministry of security was abolished by the Presidents decree No. 2233, Dec 21, 1993. On its base was created the Federal service of counter-intelligence (FSK). The same decree appointed the Director of FSK N.M. Golushko. Its set that officers by the Ministry of security and subordinated to it bodies and organizations are considered as temporary serving at FSK before attestation passing essential for entering FSK RF staff.

KGB Chairmen and their inheritors:

Vadim Viktorovich Bakatin (Aug - Nov, 1991)

Viktor Pavlovich Barannikov (Jan, 1992 - Jul, 1993)

Nikolay Mikhailovich Golushko (Sen, 1993 - Mar, 1994)

Sergey Vadimovich Stepashin (Mar, 1994 - Jul, 1995)

Mikhail Ivanovich Barsukov (Jul, 1995 - Jun, 1996)

Nikolay Dmitriyevich Kovalev (Jul, 1996 - Jul, 1998)

Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (Jul, 1998 - Aug, 1999)

Nikolay Platonovich Patrushev (Aug, 1999 - )