Service to Protect the Constitutional System and Combat Terrorism of the FSB
Chief - Aleksey Sedov
This service combats terrorism at home and abroad (including cooperation with the secret services of other countries) and conducts political surveillance and special operations.
In Soviet time two KGB divisions were responsible for combating terrorism. The first was part of the famous 5th directorate (ideological), which worked on the territory of the Soviet Union and was called the Anti-terror directorate (UBT) KGB USSR. The second worked under Directorate K (external counterespionage), was called the PGU KGB, and worked to prevent terrorists from entering the country. After the KGB reforms, and the creation of the FSB, a new Anti-terror directorate appeared (UBT). In the early 1990s this section worked simultaneously on terror per se, and on counteracting political extremism. However, after the Budyonnovsk hostage crisis in 1995 the directorate's head was relieved of his duties, and the UBT was re-organised into the Antiterror Center.
In 1997 an FSB department to combat terrorism headed by Viktor Zorin was set up on the basis of the Antiterror Center. At that time there were four directorates under the department: Operational (terror), Alfa, Vympel, Directorate K. This last was a kind of heir to the infamous 5th directorate of the KGB, responsible for ideological counterespionage.
In 1998 the Department saw the development of a political investigation system. On July 6, 1998, a Presidential decree recreated the FSB's constitutional security directorate. It was headed by Gennady Zotov. It was Zotov who initiated the merger of two structures, the DBT and the UKB into one. In 1999, a directorate for combating terrorism and political extremism was created under the department for fighting terrorism.