All roads lead into Nalchik
It’s likely to explode the situation in entire North Caucasus from Kabardino-Balkarya. Al-Qaeda already understood it, special services did not
Andrei Soldatov, Irina
Borogan, Agentura.Ru /
our research of tragic
Question is, which way the remained part
of jamaat choose, what forms of resistance they
select. Where are only two abilities: withdrawal into the political opposition
or the continuation of jihad via guerrilla war like in
In our investigation we obtained
information about the fact that after attack on October 13
was interested Al-Qaeda. In January this year special forces
killed fighter near
Message of the sheik
Rasul Kudaev grew up in the intelligent family. His
father-historian was dead, when Rasul was small, his mother works at the local radio, where she
conducts talk-shows about the Kabardian people and
its traditions. Close familiar of Rasul described us
that he has interested Islam in the early childhood, when great-grandmother learned him to read the Koran. From the 7th class he
attended the lectures of the
After the seizure of school in Beslan, when mosques in Kabardino-Balkaria began to be
shut, Astemirov and Kudaev
decided to leave the country. But authorities refused to give foreign passport
for Astemirov. Rasul Kudaev managed to leave. He left to
As we understood by the content of audio
record, it was made in
Being person with a large quantity of
contacts at the Islamic universities in
Here is small fragment from this record, in which Kudaev speaks in Russian. His father was Balkarian, and Rasul cannot speak Kabardinian fluently:
-… One serious theme was. But I did not
want to report it to you, until I verify to the end. But they were thus far
checked, until we with them calved somewhere half a year, they laid them in
I met them at first time when I has just arrived into
But then pale-yellow it occurred, when my
nearest friend, but this it takes a long time to say, shortly, he produced one
operation, killing at once 150, he flew in into one point, where munafiks were gathered. And near 450 were injured. This was
my nearest friend. I was with him from my first days in Jordan, Raid Banna. After it,
As we succeeded in research, Kudaev
mentioned the terrorist attack in the Iraqi city Hilla on February 28, 2005. Then 32-old Jordanian Raid Mansur al-Banna became suicide
car bomber, pulling off the deadliest single attack in
Story of al-Banna
was not typical for the person, who decided to become martyr for Islam. By 2002
al-Banna lived in
Responsibility for the organization of this attack took now deceased Abu Musab az-Zarkawi, head of the Iraqi network of Al-Qaeda. This act of terror was one of three largest in his terrorist career.
Possibly this person sent his emissaries to Kudaev in order to estimate, which way Kabardino-Balkarian jamaat will select for itself.
However, they did not see wide selection. Young Moslems had already the chance to become political force, but they did not use it.
The previous President of Kabardino-Balkaria Valery Kokov, governed republic since 1992, pressed any opposition. As in many other Caucasian republics, at the beginning of the 90-s opposition in Kabardino-Balkaria grew up on the base of nationalism. Kokov immediately destroyed these national motions, considering it as the main threat to its regime. But he underestimated danger from another side - from the side of Islamist opposition.
Young people, gone at the beginning of the 90s for the studies into the Arab countries, returned at home as supporters of clean islam. Being gradually converted into ever more serious force, young Moslems remained thing in itself, and political opposition disturbed them lastly.
Former KGB officer Ruslan Nakhushev, being completely secular person, was the first, who has estimated the political potential of young Moslems. He created the institute of Islamic studies, hiring the leaders of Kabardino-balkarian jamaat. As result he has immediately became the most known opposite politician in republic. He managed to use even the former leaders of the national motions: now the human rights activists they protect young Moslems from the repressions of law-enforcement agencies.
However, jamaat had its own understanding how it is necessary to fight in the republic, and young Moslems choose armed fight.
The key role in jamaat’s converting to military way played the second person in the jamaat Anzor Astemirov. Psychologically it’s understandable, why Astemirov has gone to Basaev. Astemirovs are aristocratic family in republic: Kabardian village Vernhny Akbash earlier was called Astemirovo. With the Soviet regime they were punished and expelled from KBR. Astemirov’s family could return only after the decades. Furthermore, the father of Anzor was interested entire life in Islam and boy from the childhood read the Koran in Arabian. Therefore his expectations were large, but he was constantly on the second roles: he was deputy of jamaat lyder Musa Mukozhev, and he was also only deputy in the institute of Islamic studies.
It proved to be thus the weak component, which was calculated and used by Basaev.
In January 2005 after the killing of the leader of jamaat “Yarmuk” Muslim Attaev, Astemirov took his Islamic name Seyfullakh. Together with the new name he obtained the possibility to satisfy his ambitions: Basaev was appointed him as emir of the Kabardino-Balkarian sector of Caucasian Front.
By the way, “Yarmuk”
became famous to the entire world because of the efforts of the Generals of
MVD, who accused it of the organization of attack on October 13. Although “Yarmuk” was the small Balkarian
group, and attack in
Today jamaat is looking for future. The road to political opposition was closed after attack. The way to Astemirov - to conduct diversionary war in the republic, does not attract majority.
By spring 2006 Astemirov also understood it. “Kavkazcenter” began to publish one after another letters of Seyfullakh (three only in May), in which he blames Kabardians in the inaction, criminal for the muslim. These calls are not thus far too successful. For eight months after October 13 in the republic there were not one act of terror, but all [skhrony], which find special services, they were made even to the attack.
However, jamaat remains sufficiently serious force, also because of its locked nature.
In the hostile environment
Last year Kabardino-Balkarian Jamaat was found in the conflict not only with Spiritual management of the Moslems of republic (DUM), but also with regular Moslems, increasingly being more converted into that locked and group of adherents.
Rejection occurred gradually, as for instance, in the settlement Zalukokoazhe, located in 60 kilometers from Nalchik, whose 14 inhabitants participated in the attack on October 13 (9 of them they perished, 5 arrested). In the end of the 90th here among the adherents “clean” Islam appeared the active leaders, who could draw young people and organize the group of believers, contradicted themselves to the opinion of majority.
The inhabitant of the settlement Irzhib Shogenov does’nt hate participants in the assault, although the fighters shot down his cousin brother - militiaman. “I knew those been killed, and to me it is very pity that everything thus came out. Somewhere four year ago they began to be separated among other Moslems, who attended mosque. I argued frequently with them, because they did not respect elders and only their authorities recognized, they could say even old man in the mosque: you that, you sit as Jew, remove feet”.
Meanwhile, rigid repressions by law enforcement agencies after an attack on October, 13th have not attracted new people to jamaat or growth of their support among the population of republic. Followers of a "pure" islam have appeared even in greater isolation. And the isolated group of people existing in a hostile environment, is capable of the most radical actions.
What is in Kabardino-Balkariya for al-Qaeda
Al-Qaeda should have very good
reasons to prefer small Kabardino-Balkariya to the
brotherhood exists not only in words. Once, in the beginning of 90s, Kabardino-Balkariya has already united adygi
within the limits of Confederation of mountain people of
By 1993 under Valery
Kokov's direct pressure it has collapsed, but after
death of president Kokov national Adyghe
movements again have developed. In January 2006 in Abkhazia the
In May the leadership of the main
organization of Adyghe diasporas
- the International Circassian Association - was
replaced. In June in
Adyghe theme has already started to appear
on web-sites of the Chechen separatists where there was a videoclip
about events in
By the way, the head of
In June az-Zarqawi
was killed. But who knows, whether his successor will refuse his plans. But we
have to remember Al-Qaeda for the first time in history has grasped and
executed Russian diplomats. Actually it was the first operation direct against
Jumping-off place in Abkhazia
Certainly, we do not know, what emissaries which were studying conditions in Kabardino-Balkariya through Rasul Kudaev are now planning. They have thrown this invention after death of az-Zarqawi, or, on the contrary, just now study routes of transporting of terrorists.
But there is information confirmed
that Adyghe connections
are working. Now 24 participants of an attack to
By the way, Abkhazia became a refuge
place for many before attack to
Dossier: Adyghes or Circassians
The name Circassians has been broadly applied to all peoples of the
North Caucasus, and somewhat more restrictively to all the peoples of the
Northwest Caucasus (the Adyghe, the Abkhaz, and the
vanished Ubykhs, to the exclusion of the eastern
Chechens and the peoples of
The Circassians first emerged as a coherent entity somewhere around the tenth century A.D., although references to them exist much earlier. They were never politically united, a fact which reduced their influence in the area and their ability to withstand periodic invasions from groups like the Mongols, Avars, Pechenegs, Huns, and Khazars.
This lack of
unity eventually cost the Circassians their
independence, as they were slowly conquered by
have lived outside the
Much of Circassian
culture was disrupted after their conquest by